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Access Portal for Dental Informatics, Computerized Dentistry and Dental CAD/CAM


On the subjects of omputerized dentistry, dental informatics and dental CADCAM numerous articles have appeared in the dental literature that report on the various areas of interest of DentalXS. Many of these reports have detailed investigations performed by distinguished clinicians and scientists that are not part of the eDental Health Task Force but yet their work is deserving of being referenced in this Website. Additionally, other studies performed by investigators are listed because they have been published in periodicals and have withstood scientific scrutiny.

[Ahmad 02]

Ahmad I. Restitution of maxillary anterior aesthetics with all-ceramic components. Int Dent J 52, 47 (2002).  

[Andersson 89] 

Andersson M, Bergman B, Ericson C, Lundquist P, Nilsson H. Clinical results with titanium crowns fabricated with machine duplicate and spark erosion. Acta Odontol Scand 47, 279-286 (1989).  

[Andersson 93]

Andersson M, Odén A. A new all-ceramic crown. A density sintered, high-purity alumina coping with porcelain. Acta Odontol Scand 51, 59-64 (1993).  

[Andersson 00]

Andersson M, Razzoog ME, Oden A, Hegenbarth EA, Lang BR. Procera: a new way to achieve an all-ceramic crown. Quintessence Int 29, 285 (2000).

[Andersson 01]

Andersson, B., Taylor, A., Lang, B.R., Scheller, H., Scharer, P., Sorensen, J.A., Tarnow, D.: Alumina ceramic implant abutments used for single-tooth replacement: a prospective 1- to 3-year multicenter study. Int J Prosthodont 2001;14:432-8.

[Apholt 01] 

Apholt, W., Bindl, A., Lüthy, H., Mörmann, W. H.: Flexural strength of machined and jointed InCeram-Alumina and InCeram-Zirconia bars. Dent Mater 17, 260 (2001).  

[Atkinson 02]

Atkinson JC, Zeller GG, Shah C. Electronic patient records for dental school clinics: more than paperless systems. J Dent Educ. 2002;66:34-42.

[AWMF 00]

AWMF: Erarbeitung von Leitlinien für Diagnostik und Therapie. Vol 2000: AWMF: http://www.awmf-online.de

[Balch 99]

Balch DC, Warner DJ, Gustke SS (1999). Highlights from the Third Annual DMI Conference—medical knowledge on demand. MD-Computing (March/April):48–50. 

[Barac’h 02]

Barac’h V, Schleyer TK. Dental concept in the unified medical language system. Vocabulary coverage analysis of dental diagnostic terms in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Quintessence Int 33:69-74(2002).

[Becker 96]

Becker, J.: CAC ­ ein Weg zur computerunterstützten Herstellung keramischer Restaurationen. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 51, 511 (1996).  

[Becker 93]

Becker, J., Heidemann, D.: Entwicklungsstand und Probleme des Einsatz von CAD/CAM-Systemen. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 48, 611 (1993).  

[Begazo 03]

Begazo, C.C., van der Zel, J.M., van Waas, M.A.J., Feilzer, A.J.: Effectiveness of preparation guidelines for all-ceramic restorative system, Am J Prosth Dent. (2003).  

[Besimo 95]

Besimo, Ch., Jeger, C., Graber, G., Guggenheim, R., Düggelin, M. Mathys, D., Jahn, M.: Marginale Passgenauigkeit computergefräster Titalkronen. Dtsch Xahnärztl Z 50, 11 (1995).

[Bezimo 00]

Besimo C, Lambrecht JT, Guindy JS (2000) Accuracy of implant treatment planning utilizing template-guided reformatted computed tomography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 29:46-51.

[Besimo 01]

Besimo, C. E., Spielmann, H. P., Rohner, H. P.: Computer-assisted all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures. Int J Comput Dent 4, 243 (2001).

[Bill 93]

Bill, J., Reuther, J., Mühling, J., Wittenberg, G., Eckstein, T., Reinhart, E., Pistner, H., Meier, J., Betz, T.: Stereolithographie ­ eine neue Methode zur implantologischen Operationsplanung nach Unterkieferrekonstruktion. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 48, 789 (1993).  

[Bindl 99/1]

Bindl, A., Mörmann, W. H.: Clinical evaluation of adhesively placed Cerec endo-crowns after 2 years ­ preliminary results. J Adhes Dent 1, 255 (1999).

[Bindl 99/2]

Bindl, A., Windisch, S., Mörmann, W. H.: Full-ceramic CAD/CIM anterior crowns and copings. Int J Comput Dent 2, 97 (1999).  

[Bindl 02]

 Bindl, A., Mörmann, W. H.: An up to 5-year clinical evaluation of posterior in-ceram CAD/CAM core crowns. Int J Prosthodont 15, 451 (2002).  

[Blatz 03]

Blatz, M.B., Sadan, A., Arch, G.H. Jr, Lang, B.R.: In vitro evaluation of long-term bonding of Procera AllCeram alumina restorations with a modified resin luting agent. J Prosthet Dent 2003;89:381-7.

[Boening 00]

Boening, K.W., Wolf, B.H., Schmidt, A.E., Kastner, K., Walter, M.H.: Clinical fit of Procera AllCeram crowns. J Prosthet Dent 2000;84:419-24.

[Bonnard 02]

Bonnard, P., Hermans, M., Adriaenssens, P., Daelemans, P., Malevez, C.: Anterior esthetic rehabilitation on teeth and dental implants optimized with Procera technology: A case report. Journal of Esthetic & Restorative Dentistry 2002;13:163-71.

[Borchard 98]

Borchard, K., Erpenstein, H., Kerschbaum, T.: Langzeitergebnisse von galvanokeramischen und glaskeramischen (Dicor(R)) Einzelkronen unter klinischen Bedingungen. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 53, 616 (1998).  

[Bornemann 01]

Bornemann, G., Lemelson, S., Claas, H., Luthardt, R.: Analyse der 3D-Passgenauigkeit von Vollkeramikkronen (Cerec-3). Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 56, 619 (2001).  

[Bornemann 02]

Bornemann, G., Lemelson, S., Luthardt, R.: Innovative method for the analysis of the internal 3D fitting accuracy of Cerec-3 crowns. Int J Comput Dent 5, 177 (2002).  

[Bose 94]

Bose, M., Ott, K. H. R.: Wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse über das Cerec(R)-vielversprechend. Die erfolgreiche Einführung der Stereolithographie zur Herstellung von Gussteilen oder Provisorien. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 49, 671 (1994).  

[Brandestini 85]

Brandestini, M., Möhrmann, W., Lutz, F., Kreji, I. : Computer machined ceramic inlays : In vitro marginal adaptatiom. J Dent Res 64(A) : Abstract 305 (1985).  

[Brandestini 89]

Brandestini M and Mörmann W. Die CEREC Computer Rekonstruktion. Quint- essenz-Verlag, 1989.

[Brick 03]

Brick, E.-M., Rudolph, H., Sandkuhl, O., Johannes, M., Luthardt, R. G.: Einsatz von Nanokeramik für Kronengerüste. ZWR 112, 93 (2003).  

[Brunton 99]

Brunton, P. A., Smith, P., McCord, J. F., Wilson, N. H.: Procera all-ceramic crowns: a new approach to an old problem? Br Dent J 186, 430 (1999).  

[Burger 96]

Burger, W.: Zirkonoxid in der Medizintechnik. Keramische Werkstoffe April, 1 (1996).  

[Calamia 94]

Calamia, J. R.: Advances in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture technology. Curr Opin Cosmet Dent, 67 (1994).  

[Casap 04]

Casap, N., Wexler, A., Persky, N., Schneider, A., Lustmann, J., Navigation surgery for dental implants: Assessment of accuracy of the image guided implantology system, J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004 Sep;62(9 Suppl 3):116-9.

[Casap 05]

Casap N, Tarazi E, Wexler A, Sonnenfeld U, Lustmann J., Intraoperative computerized navigation for flapless implant surgery and immediate loading in the edentulous mandible, Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2005  Jan-Feb;20(1):92-8.

[Chai 00]

Chai, J., Takahashi, Y., Sulaiman, F., Chong, K., Lautenschlager, E.P.: Probability of fracture of all-ceramic crowns. Int J Prosthodont 2000;13:420-4, 2000.

[Chang 99]

Chang, Y. H., Liu, P. R., Essig, M. E.: A new technique for generating a computer-aided design and computer-integrated machining crown: case report. Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi 22, 633 (1999).  

[Cheah 03/1]

Cheah CM, Chua CK, Tan KH: Integration of laser surface digitizing with CAD/CAM techniques for developing facial prostheses. Part 1: Design and fabrication of prosthesis replicas. Int J Prosthodont. 2003 Jul-Aug;16(4):435-41.  

[Cheah 03/2]

Cheah CM, Chua CK, Tan KH, Teo CK:Integration of laser surface digitizing with CAD/CAM techniques for developing facial prostheses. Part 2: Development of molding techniques for casting prosthetic parts. Int J Prosthodont. 2003 Sep-Oct;16(5):543-8. 

[Chen 99]

Chen, H. Y., Hickel, R., Setcos, J. C., Kunzelmann, K. H.: Effects of surface finish and fatigue testing on the fracture strength of CAD-CAM and pressed- ceramic crowns. J Prosthet Dent 82, 468 (1999).  

[Cheung 91]

Cheung, G. S.: A preliminary investigation into the longevity and causes of failure of single unit extracoronal restorations. J Dent 19, 160 (1991).  

[Chitmongkolsuk 02]

Chitmongkolsuk, S., Heydecke, G., Stappert, C., Strub, J. R.: Fracture strength of all-ceramic lithium disilicate and porcelain-fused-to-metal bridges for replacement after dynamic loading. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 10, 15 (2002).  

[Christensen 01]

Christensen, G. J.: Computerized restorative dentistry. State of the art. J Am Dent Assoc 132, 1301 (2001).  

[Cordato 96]

Cordato M (1996). A mathematical study of anterior dental relations: Part II, Incisor and canine overjet. Aust Orthod J 14(3):143–149.[Medline]

[Cornish 98]

Cornish, G.: Single appointment ceramics. A look at the CEREC II system. J Colo Dent Assoc 77, 12 (1998).  

[Dahlmo 01]

Dahlmo, K.I., Andersson, M., Gellerstedt, M., Karlsson, S.: On a new method to assess the accuracy of a CAD program. Int J Prosthodont 2001;14:276-83.

DeLong 02]

DeLong, R., Ko, C.-C., Olson, I., Hodges, J.S., Douglas W.H., Helical Axis Errors Affect Computer-generated Occlusal Contacts, J Dent Res 81 (5): 338-343, 2002.

[DeLong 02/2]

DeLong R, Ko CC, Anderson GC, Hodges JS, Douglas WH. Comparing maximum intercuspal contacts of virtual dental patients and mounted dental casts. J Prosthet Dent. 2002 Dec;88(6):622-30.

[DeLong 03]

DeLong, R., Heinzen, M., Hodges, J.S., Ko, C.-C., Douglas, W.H., Accuracy of a System for creating 3D Computer Models of Dental Arches, J Dent Res 82 (6):438-442, 2003.

[Denissen 99/1]

Denissen, H.W. van der Zel, J.M., van Waas, M.A.J.: CAD/CAM-copings voor partiële omslijpingen, Ned. Tijdschrift Tandheelkunde 106:34 (1999).

[Denissen 99/2]

Denissen, H., van der Zel, J., Reisig, J., Vlaar, S., de Ruiter, W., van Waas, R.: Computer copings for partial coverage. Int J Comput Dent 2, 113 (1999).

[Denissen 99/3]

Denissen, H.W., van der Zel, J.M., van Waas, M.A.J.: Measurement of the Margins of Partial-Coverage Tooth Preparations for CAD/CAM, Int J Prosth 12, 5:395-400 (1999).

[Denissen 00]

Denissen, H.W., Dozic, A., van der Zel, J.M., van Waas, M.A.J.: Marginal fit and shortterm clinical performance of porcelain veneered Procera onlays, J. Prosth Dent 85, 5:506 (2000).  

[Denissen 02]

Denissen, H. W., El-Zohairy, A. A., van Waas, M. A., Feilzer, A. J.: Porcelain-veneered computer-generated partial crowns. Quintessence Int 33, 723 (2002).  

[DGZMK 01]

DGZMK und DGZPW.: Sind vollkeramische Kronen und Brücken wissenschaftlich anerkannt? Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 56, 575 (2001).  

[Doernbrack 02]

Dörnbrack, M., Rzanny, A., Welker, D., Küpper, H.: Zur Oberflächenqualität CAD/CAM-gefertigter keramischer Restaurationen nach Politur. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 57, 492 (2002).   

[Duke 01]

Duke, E. S.: The status of CAD/CAM in restorative dentistry. Compend Contin Educ Dent 22, 968 (2001). 

[Ðozic 03]

Ðozic A.,  Kleverlaan C.J., Meegdes M., van der Zel J.M., Feilzer A.J.: The influence of porcelain layer thickness on the final shade of ceramic restorations. J Prosthet Dent, 90, 563-570 (2003).  

[Durnfahrt 95]

Dumfahrt, H., Schäfer, H.: Vollkeramische Adhäsivbrücken aus Optec Hsp® im klinischen Versuch. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 50, 375 (1995). 

[Duret 85]

Duret, F., Blouin, J.I., and Nahami, L.. Principes de fonctionnement et application techniques de l'empreine optique dans l'exercise des cabinet.
Cah Prothese, 13:73-(1985).

[Duret 87]

Duret, F.,Blouin, J.: La Réalisation d’une couronne assistée par Ordinateur. Dentist News 56, 15 (1987).  

[Duret 88/1]

Duret, F.. Method of making a prosthesis, especially a dental prosthesis.
Technical report, United States Patent Nr. 4742464 (1988).

[Duret 88/2]

Duret, F., Blouin, J.L., Duret, B.: CAD-CAM in dentistry. J Am Dent Assoc 1988,11, 715 (1988). 

[Duret 96]

Duret, F., Preston, J., Duret, B.: Performance of CAD/CAM crown restorations. J Calif Dent Assoc 24, 64 (1996).  

[Eisner 93]

Eisner J, Chasteen J, Schleyer T, Feldman. The computer based oral health record: a new foundation for oral health information systems. Chicago, IL: American Fund for Dental Health, 1993.

[Eisner 99]

Eisner J (1999). The future of dental informatics. Eur J Dent Educ 3:61–69.[Medline] 

[Erpenstein 95]

Erpenstein, H., Kerschbaum, T.: Frakturanfälligkeit von glas- und galvano-keramischen Kronen. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 50, 668 (1995).

[Erpenstein 00]

Erpenstein, H., Borchard, R., Kerschbaum, T.: Long-term clinical results of galvano-ceramic and glass-ceramic individual crowns. J Prosthet Dent 83, 530 (2000).  

[Eskander 94]

Eskander, M. E., Shehab, G. I.: Microleakage of computer-generated Vita Cerec and Vitadur-N laminate veneers. Egypt Dent J 40, 593 (1994).  

[Estafan 99]

Estafan, D., David, A., David, S., Calamia, J.: A new approach to restorative dentistry: fabricating ceramic restorations using CEREC CAD/CAM. Compend Contin Educ Dent 20, 555 (1999).  

[Fassbinder 02]

Fasbinder, D. J.: Restorative material options for CAD/CAM restorations. Compend Contin Educ Dent 23, 911 (2002).  

[Fassbinder 03]

Fasbinder, D.: Utilizing lab-based CAD/CAM technology for metal-free ceramic restorations. Dent Today 22, 100 (2003).  

[Filser 01]

Filser, F., Kocher, P., Weibel, F., Lüthy, H., Schärer, P., Gauckler, L. J.: Reliability and strength of all-ceramic dental restorations fabricated by direct ceramic machining (DCM). Int J Comput Dent 4, 89 (2001).  

[Finkeisen 02/1]

Finkeissen E (2002). Zahnmedizinische Entscheidungsstrukturen—Grundlagen einer wissensbasierten Zweitmeinung. In: Institut für Medizinische Biometrie und Informatik, Abteilung Medizinische Informatik. Heidelberg: Universität Heidelberg.

[Finkeisen 02/2]

Finkeissen E, Hassfeld S, Koke U, Helmstetter-Blasius C, Eickholz P, Wetter T (2002). Problems with current dental documentation in Germany. Heidelberg, Germany: Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, Department of Medical Informatics, p. 15. 

[Finkeisen 02/3]

Finkeissen E, Koke U, Hassfeld S, Helmstetter C, Weber R, Wetter T (2002). AIDA—iterative approach for the improvement of a knowledge-based decision methodology in dentistry. Quintessence Int (submitted). 

[Fischer 99/1]

Fischer, H., Tinschert, J., Marx, R.: Steigerung der Beanspruchbarkeit vollkeramischer Brücken durch Ionenaustauschverfahren. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 54, 321 (1999).  

[Fischer 99/2]

Fischer, H., Weinzierl, P., Weber, M., Marx, R.: Bearbeitungsinduzierte Schädigung von Dentalkeramik. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 54, 484 (1999).   

[Fischer 00]

 Fischer, H., Gröbel, J., Marx, R.: Fraktographische Schadensanalyse an Dentalkeramik. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 55, 667 (2000).  

[Frankenberger 98]

Frankenberger, R., Sindel, J., Krämer, N., Petschelt, A.: Dentinhaftung von Keramikinlays in simulierten Kavitäten. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 53, 507 (1998).

[Ganz 95]

Ganz, SD. “Interactive Computer Utilization for Treatment Planning Dental Implants and Optimizing Patient Communication,” Academy of Osseointegration, Mar 2-4, 1995, main podium presentation.

[Ganz 95]

Ganz, SD, “Predictable Implantology through Computer Imaging: Anatomical Considerations and Template Design,” 1 st AAOMS Implant Conference, 1995. Main Podium Presentation.

[Ganz 96]

Ganz, SD, "The Use of Computer Imaging Technology" Main Podium Presentation, Joint Meeting EAO & AO October 17-19, 1996, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

[Ganz 95]

Ganz Scott D., “The triangle of bone - a formula for successful implant placement and restoration,” The Implant Society (Impla nt Soc), 1995.

[Geis-Gerstorfer 93]

Geis-Gerstorfer, J., Kanjantra, P., Pröbster, L., Weber, H.: Untersuchung der Bruchzähigkeit und des Rißwachstums zweier vollkeramischer Kronen- und Brückensysteme. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 48, 685 (1993).  

[German 84]

Geman, S, Geman, D. Stochastic relaxation, gibbs distribution, and the bayesian restoration of images. IEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 6(2):721-741, 1984.


Gente, M., Schwalm, J.: Die Marburger Mineralmantelkrone. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 49, 626 (1994).   


Giordano, R.: A comparison of all-ceramic restorative systems: Part 2. General Dentistry 2000;48:38-40, 43-5.


Giordano, R. A., 2nd: CAD/CAM: overview of machines and materials. J Mass Dent Soc 51, 12 (2002).  


Graber, G. und Besimo, C.: Das DCS-Hochleistungskeramik-System, Quintessenz Zahntech 20, 57-64 (1994).  


Groten, M., Girthofer, S., Probster, L.: Marginal fit consistency of copy-milled all-ceramic crowns during fabrication by light and scanning electron microscopic analysis in vitro. J Oral Rehabil 24, 871 (1997).  


Guerrero ME, Jacobs R, Loubele M, Schutyser F, Suetens P, van Steenberghe D. State-of-the-art on cone beam CT imaging for preoperative planning of implant placement. Clin Oral Invest (2006) 10:1-7.


Gürke, S. Modellbasierte Rekonstruktion von Zähnen aus intraoralen Tiefenbildern. In Digitale Bildverarbeitung in der Medizin, pages 231-237, Freiburg, Germany, March 1997. 5. Freiburger Workshop Digitale Bildverarbeitung in der Medizin.


Haas, M., Arnetzl, G., Wegscheider, W. A., König, K., Bratschko, R. O.: Klinische und werkstoffkundliche Erfahrungen mit Komposit-, Keramik- und inlays. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 47, 18 (1992).  


Hager, B., Oden, A., Andersson, B., Andersson L.: Procera AllCeram laminates: A clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2001;85:231-2.


Hahn, R., Barho, R., Löst, C.: Partielle Non-Konditionierung keramischer Einlagefüllungen bei approximaler Schmelzdiskontinuität. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 47, 432 (1992).  


Hahn, R., Löst, C.: Konventionelle Dentalporzellane versus bruchzähe Hochleistungskeramik. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 47, 659 (1992).  


Hahn, R., Löst, C.: Sonoerosive Fertigung keramischer Zahnrestaurationen. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 47, 734 (1992).  

[Hall 98]

Hall WB, Gluskin AH, Roberts WE: Decision Making in Dental Treatment Planning. Second Edition. Mosby, St. Louis, 1998.

[Hammond 93]

Hammond P, Davenport JC, Fitzpatrick FJ: Logic-based integrity constraints and design of dental prosdtheses. Artificial Imtelligence in Medicine 1993. ArtMed 218:431-446.


Han K, Lu R, Ma Y, Lu P, Zhang H, Wang W (1998). Reconstruction of three-dimensional digital teeth. Chin J Dent Res 1(2):22–25.[Medline] 


Hansen, S.: Cerec 3 ­ the software. Int J Comput Dent 3, 41 (2000).


Hansen, S.: Preparations for Cerec 3: where are the limits? Int J Comput Dent 3, 197 (2000).


Hansen, S.: Preparations for Cerec inlays, onlays, and partial crowns. Int J Coput Dent 2, 299 (2000).  


Hehn, S.: The evolution of a chairside CAD/CAM system for dental restora tions. Compend Contin Educ Dent 22, 4 (2001).


Hehn, S.: Principles of ,,extended machining" in the Cerec machining process. Int J Comput Dent 2, 291 (1999).  


Heydecke, G., Sierraalta, M., Razzoog, M.E.: Evolution and use of aluminum oxide single-tooth implant abutments: A short review and presentation of two cases. In J Prosthodont 2002;15:488-93.


Hojjatie, B., Anusavice, K. J.: Three-dimensional finite element analysis of glass-ceramic dental crowns. J Biomech 23, 1157 (1990).


Hölsch, W., Kappert, H. F.: Festigkeitsprüfung von vollkeramischen Einzelzahnersatz für den Front- und Seitenzahnbereich. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 47, 621 (1992).  


Ingber, L. Simulated annealing: Practice versus theory. Mathl. Compu. Modelling, 18(11):29-57 (1993).


Jacobs R, Adriansens A, Verstreken K, Suetens P, van Steenberghe D (1999) Predictability of a three-dimensional planning system for oral implant surgery. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 28:105–111.


Jacot-Descombes, Y., Giordano, D., Sieber, C., Marinello, C. P.: Copy-milled and resin-bonded full-ceramic structures. A further development of the Celay/In-Ceram system]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 108, 1184 (1998).  


Jedynakiewicz, N. M., Martin, N.: Functionally-generated pathway theory, application and development in Cerec restorations. Int J Comput Dent 4, 25  (2001).


Kamposiora, P., Papavasiliou, G., Bayne, S. C., Felton, D. A.: Predictions of ce ment microfracture under crowns using 3D-FEA. J Prosthodont 9, 201 (2000).   


Kamposiora, P., Papavasiliou, G., Bayne, S. C., Felton, D. A.: Stress concentration in all-ceramic posterior fixed partial dentures. Quintessence Int 27, 701 (1996).  


Kamposiora, P., Papavasilious, G., Bayne, S. C., Felton, D. A.: Finite element analysis estimates of cement microfracture under complete veneer crowns. J Prosthet Dent 71, 435 (1994).  


Kappert, H.F. und Gläser, P.: Zeta DC-Tell. Eine innovative Werkstoffkombination für die CAD/CAM-Technik zur Kronen- und Brückenversorgung. Quintessenz Zahntech 24/6, 605 (1998).  


Karkar, I. G.: A simple, practical method for optimizing aesthetic results of CEREC milled restorations. Dent Today 20, 106 (2001).


Kennedy, J.P.: Computer designed and milled porcelain esthetic resin-bonded fixed partial denture. Gen Dent 50, 59 (2002).

[Kern 92]

Kern, M., Strub, J.R.: Klinische Anwendung und Bewährung von  Adhäsivbrücken aus der Aluminiumoxidkeramik In-Ceram. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 47, 532 (1992).   

[Kern 03] 

Kern, M: Anzahl der vollkeramischen Restaurationen im Jahr 2002. Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Keramik in der Zahnheilkunde e.V., Persönliche Mitteilungen 12.06.2003.


Kielbassa, A., Attin, T., Wrbas, K.-T., Stossek, M., Hellwig, E.: Der Einfluß der unterschiedlichen Verarbeitung des Haftvermittlers auf die Zughaftung von Glaskeramik auf Dentin. Dtsch Zahnärztl Z 52, 252 (1997).  


Kikuchi, M., Takakuda, K., Miyairi, H., Okuno, O.: An approach to computer aided porcelain forming system. Dental materials Journal 14,2,236 (1995)


Kimura, H., Sohmura, T., Takahashi, J.: Three dimensional shape measurement of teeth (Part II) – CAD to produce crown considering occlusion. Dental Materials Journal 11,1,38 (1992).  


Kimura, H., Kawanaka, M.: Nachbildung von Kronenformen mittels Computergrafik. Quint Zahntech 16, 341 (1990).              

[Kolbach 02]

Kolbach, H.: Veneer or anterior partial crown: guidelines for selecting the right program. Int J Comput Dent 5, 33 (2002).  

[Koeln 01]

Köln Messe: IDS 2001, 29. Internationale Dental-Schau. 2001, Messekatalog. Verband der Deutschen Dental-Industrie e.V. (Hrsg). Köln 2001.       

[Koeln 03]

Köln Messe: IDS 2003, 30. Internationale Dental-Schau. 2003, Messekatalog. Koelnmesse GmbH (Hrsg). Köln 2003.  

[Kordass 01]

Kordass B, Gaertner C. Digitale Praxis und Virtueller Artikulator - Herausforderungen für das Praxisteam. Qintessenz Team-Journal 2001, 31:647-652.

[Kordass 02/1]

Kordass B. Applied Informatics in Dentistry and Oral Medicine. Int J Comp Dent 2002, 5(2):79-81.

[Kordass 02/2]

Kordass B. Computerunterstüzte Funktionsdiagnostik: In oder out?. Int J Comp Dent 2002, 5:247-249.

[Kordass 02/3]

Kordass B. Computerunterstützte instrumentelle Funktionsdiagnostik - Stand der Entwicklung, Möglichkeiten und Grenzen. Int J Comp Dent 2002, 5:251-271.

[Kordass 02/4]

Kordass B, Rosin M, Kocher T, Splieth C, Hessler M, Gaertner C. Quantification of gingival edema using a new 3-D laser scanning method. J CLIN PERIODONTOL 2002, 15(3):240-246.

[Kordass 02/5]

Kordass B. Study Group for Applied Informatics in Dentistry and Oral Medicine. Int J Comp Dent 2002, 5(2):211-222

[Kordass 02/6]

Kordass B G C, Soehnel A, Bisler A V G, Bockholt U S S. The virtual articulator in dentistry: concept an development. Dent Clin North Am 2002, 46(3):493-506.

[Kordass 03/1]

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